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What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Every measuring instrument or device requires calibration at periodic intervals, which is part of preventive maintenance (PM). It is because, every instrument or device undergoes drift in calibration with time. Let us discuss As-found data and As-left data in this article. In calibration sheet with “As-found” data is most important because it will determine the validity of any tests run with the instrument in the past. As-found data furnish a history of the drift…

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Signal Generator and Types

The signal generator is an electronic device that induces repetition and non-repetition of analog or digital signals. The signal generator is widely used in troubleshooting, signal tracing, testing, amplifier response tuning, and radio and TV circuit alignment. The signal generator has a built-in modulation property. Amplitude and modulation properties are very common in signal generators. The signal generator’s block diagram is represented in the graphic below. A VCO is the major component of the…

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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is an equipment that displays, measures, and analyzes different waveforms of electrical circuits. A cathode ray oscilloscope is a high-speed X-Y plotter (a plotter that operates on two axes of motion) that may display an input signal vs time or another signal. Working Cathode ray oscilloscopes work with light points that are produced by striking the electron beam. This light point moves in response to the…

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Types of Batteries and their important Characteristics.

Batteries are accumulators that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy and are an essential device in isolated, self-consumption installations. Principle of Battery The basic principle of a battery comprises the oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions of particular chemical substances. One chemical substance of which loses electrons (is oxidized) while the other gains electrons (is reduced), being able to return to its initial configuration. What are batteries and cells? A battery is also called an accumulator…

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What are the basic concepts of industrial instrumentation?

Industrial instrumentation is a fundamental discipline in the process industry and production plants. It is possibly less well known than industrial automation, but there are technicians and engineers specialized only in this field. In short, industrial instrumentation refers to a multi-disciplinary area that requires knowledge of electrical electronics, chemistry, mechanics microcontrollers and microprocessors, software language, process control. Also, such as the principles of pneumatics and hydraulics, and basics of industrial protocols, network communications. Now,…

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Types of Pneumatic Directional Valves

The main function of pneumatic valves is to direct and distribute compressed air within a pneumatic circuit. They regulate the pace or slow it down. Pneumatic directional valves build the path that the fluid must travel. But, at the moment of commanding them, the variables are many and it is necessary to know them in more depth to obtain good results in the process. To classify them, we can name 4 different types of…

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Control valve performance and types of associated problems.

A new control valve will execute control operations at peak performance. But to keep the same performance year after year, and decade after decade, a regular and necessary maintenance plan is needed. For control valves, the best plan is based on diagnostics during valve operation and predictive maintenance. Control valve Diagnostics New microprocessor-based diagnostic tools permit technicians to test and diagnose valves on plant operation sites. This is equivalent to an auto service technician…

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Why 4-20mA signal is more usable? What is the origin of this popular range?

When pneumatics predominated in the industry and its control was referenced with ranges from 3 to 15 PSI, any value outside of that range was considered an alarm signal. Most important events happened in relation to the industrial revolution 2.0, the integration of electronic control to pneumatics. In this context, the easy installation and maintenance of the electrical wiring have attracted the industrialists, who suffered from the problems of pressure losses in the pneumatic…

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Types of Maintenance, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Objectives of Maintenance: Increase the availability of equipment to the level of accuracy. Reduce costs to the minimum compatible with the level of required availability. Improve the reliability of machinery and installations. Assistance to the engineering department in new projects to facilitate the maintainability of the new facilities.                       Maintenance objectives Types of maintenance: Any productive company that handles machinery and equipment, to perform optimally should have a type of maintenance defined according to the…

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CONTROL VALVE GLOSSARY

Diaphragm Actuator: The actuator whose element for transforming pressure into force is a diaphragm which is a flexible pressure-sensitive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and is at its once to the actuator stem. The plate is a metallic assembly concentric with the diaphragm in which the stem is held. This type of actuator is normally single-acting and due to the large dimensions of the diaphragm, it is capable of producing forces…

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What are the factors to be considered while choosing an Electric Actuator for an application?

An electric linear actuator is a piece of equipment that transforms the rotary motion of a motor into linear motion. It can be integrated into any equipment to push, pull, lift, lower, position, or rotate a load. Choosing the right electric actuator is the key to any successful automation project. There are many models of parallel, L-shaped, parallel motor actuators that can be employed in many applications. Each need corresponds to a unique project.…

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Level measurement with capacitance probe, advantages, and limitations.

The capacitance instrument measures the capacitance between the two pieces of a capacitor. The capacitance of the capacitor increases when a dielectric is placed between the plates. The circuit supplies a high-frequency signal to the probe. C = K E0 A D Where: C = capacitance K = dielectric constant of the material E0 = permittivity of vacuum A = plate area (conductor)   D = distance between conductors (plates)   When one plate…

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Hazardous area classification, Signal isolation, methods of protection in the dangerous atmosphere.

Classification of hazardous areas The codes used by the different manufacturers subdivide hazardous areas into zones. Zone 0: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is present continuously or for long periods of time. Zone 1: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to be in normal operation. Zone 2: In this zone, an explosive gas/air mixture is unlikely to be in normal operation, and if it does, it will only be…

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