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Common Errors in Measuring Instrument Calibration: Zero, Span, Linearity, and Hysteresis.

Instrument calibration is a procedure that certifies the measurement obtained by an instrument is compatible with what is expected and is suitable for use, to avoid deviations in the analysis of processes and reduce costs. In general, it comprises comparing the results obtained by the instruments with those obtained by standards, under pre-established and controlled conditions. During calibration, a technician encounters certain errors such as zero error, span error, linearity, and hysteresis that are…

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What is a Submersible Pump? Working Principles, Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Submersible pumps, as the name indicates, are pumps that work completely submerged in a liquid. The motor, which is coupled inside the pump body, is hermetically sealed, so that water enters it. A submersible pump is a device that works under the liquid to be pumped since it allows the creation of a significant force. The pump is very easy to use since it only has to be placed under the liquid as deep…

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What are the Types of Test signals?

For many practical control processes, the input drives are unknown in advance, unlike electrical circuits and communication systems. In many cases, the actual inputs to a control system generally can vary randomly with respect to time. A designer faces a challenge since it is difficult to design a control process that works satisfactorily with any type of input signal.  Purpose of Test Signals Test signals are for analysis and design purposes. To evaluate the…

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Types of wear to which a Control Valve is exposed

In the study of control valve failure analysis, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the wear mechanisms since the detachment of material from a mechanical component can vary remarkably, from very intense to insignificant. It means a total loss of efficiency or complete utility of the item. The wear mechanisms that affect the valves and in general mechanical elements, can be classified into abrasion, erosion, corrosion, and cavitation. Abrasion It is…

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What is Rotameter? Principle, Classification, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Description of Rotameter Rotameter is also called a variable area flowmeter. It is a type of flowmeter that measures flow rate or volumetric flow rate. It is defined as the amount of flow per unit of time that circulates through a section of a tube. The rotameter is a conical tube, usually made of glass, metal, or plastic. A piece inside is called a float that moves vertically up and down depending on the…

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How does a Solenoid Valve work? Operating Principle, Types

We can define a solenoid valve as a device that has the purpose of controlling the flow of liquids or gases that is electrically actuated and can also be installed in remote or difficult-to-access places. The solenoid valves can be subjected to hostile working conditions. It can be controlled by simple electrical switches. It can also be controlled by devices like thermostatic, float, low-pressure, high-pressure, clock switches, or any other device that opens or…

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Directional Control Valves, Difference between Monostable and Bistable Valves

Directional control valves are those which change the flow of compressed air that goes to the cylinders, pneumatic valve actuators, etc., By switching, opening, or closing their internal connections, they control compressed air passage. It allows control of the inlet and outlet of a cylinder, the opening or closing of a pneumatic clamp, or the rotation of a rotary actuator. Types of directional control valves Monostable valves This type of valve will remain indefinitely…

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Roles and Responsibilities of an Instrumentation and Control Engineer

It is the responsibility of the Instrumentation and Control Engineer for defining and applying the field instrumentation and the control system, level of automation of the process plants, and industrial facilities, for the proper functioning of the process. Greater attention required to be paid on the safety for the equipment and people, and with the minimum cost. Generally, an instrumentation project involves defining, specifying, buying, installing, starting-up, and maintaining the local and remote instruments…

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What is 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, and 2oo3 voting?

It is a typical Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) Solution. What is the best method to determine the safety architecture?It is the fault tolerance of various components that determines the architecture of an safety instrumented function (SIF). It is possible to achieve a higher level of safety by utilizing the system redundancy. The number of devices will depend on the reliability of each component defined in its FMEDA (Failure Modes, Effects and Diagnostic Analysis). There…

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Difference between the Pressure Gauge with glycerin and without glycerin?

Why the Pressure Gauge that has liquid inside is oil or what exactly? That liquid is glycerin, and the Pressure Gauge must have a type with glycerin and a type without glycerin. Everything has its cause and effect. A pressure gauge with glycerin is good or bad. What kind of work is it suitable for? How does it apply to work? Glycerin is a type of viscous liquid that has no smell, color, properties…

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What is SCADA system (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition)

Definition It is a software application specially designed to work on computers in production control, providing communication with field devices (autonomous controllers) and controlling the process automatically from the computer screen. It also provides all the information generated in the production process to various users, both at the same level and from other supervisory users within the company (supervision, quality control, production control, data storage, etc.). Feedback is in an organization, the process of…

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Difference between Analog and Digital Transmitter

Digital type of transmitters digitize the measured analog signal, and use a microprocessor. The analog signal entering the transmitter is digitized with an analog to digital converter (ADC). Due to the time required to quantify a signal, digital instruments do not perform a continuous measurement, only sample of the signal are taken. Below we will see a classification of digital transmitters. They are totally digital, including the output. Although it can generate digital output,…

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Mounting Considerations of a Pressure transmitter.

The following observations must be taken into account for the different types of process pressures to be measured. Measurement in liquids With the installation used in horizontal line, the transmitter impulse line must be mounted below the measurement point, so that the discharge pipe is always full of liquid and gas bubbles can pass into the process pipeline. Measurement in steam service Mount the pressure transmitter above the tapping point, using a connection tube…

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