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Directional Control Valves, Difference between Monostable and Bistable Valves

Directional control valves are those which change the flow of compressed air that goes to the cylinders, pneumatic valve actuators, etc., By switching, opening, or closing their internal connections, they control compressed air passage. It allows control of the inlet and outlet of a cylinder, the opening or closing of a pneumatic clamp, or the rotation of a rotary actuator. Types of directional control valves Monostable valves This type of valve will remain indefinitely…

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Roles and Responsibilities of an Instrumentation and Control Engineer

It is the responsibility of the Instrumentation and Control Engineer for defining and applying the field instrumentation and the control system, level of automation of the process plants, and industrial facilities, for the proper functioning of the process. Greater attention required to be paid on the safety for the equipment and people, and with the minimum cost. Generally, an instrumentation project involves defining, specifying, buying, installing, starting-up, and maintaining the local and remote instruments…

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What is 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, and 2oo3 voting?

It is a typical Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) Solution. What is the best method to determine the safety architecture?It is the fault tolerance of various components that determines the architecture of an safety instrumented function (SIF). It is possible to achieve a higher level of safety by utilizing the system redundancy. The number of devices will depend on the reliability of each component defined in its FMEDA (Failure Modes, Effects and Diagnostic Analysis). There…

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Difference between the Pressure Gauge with glycerin and without glycerin?

Why the Pressure Gauge that has liquid inside is oil or what exactly? That liquid is glycerin, and the Pressure Gauge must have a type with glycerin and a type without glycerin. Everything has its cause and effect. A pressure gauge with glycerin is good or bad. What kind of work is it suitable for? How does it apply to work? Glycerin is a type of viscous liquid that has no smell, color, properties…

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What is SCADA system (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition)

Definition It is a software application specially designed to work on computers in production control, providing communication with field devices (autonomous controllers) and controlling the process automatically from the computer screen. It also provides all the information generated in the production process to various users, both at the same level and from other supervisory users within the company (supervision, quality control, production control, data storage, etc.). Feedback is in an organization, the process of…

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Difference between Analog and Digital Transmitter

Digital type of transmitters digitize the measured analog signal, and use a microprocessor. The analog signal entering the transmitter is digitized with an analog to digital converter (ADC). Due to the time required to quantify a signal, digital instruments do not perform a continuous measurement, only sample of the signal are taken. Below we will see a classification of digital transmitters. They are totally digital, including the output. Although it can generate digital output,…

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Mounting Considerations of a Pressure transmitter.

The following observations must be taken into account for the different types of process pressures to be measured. Measurement in liquids With the installation used in horizontal line, the transmitter impulse line must be mounted below the measurement point, so that the discharge pipe is always full of liquid and gas bubbles can pass into the process pipeline. Measurement in steam service Mount the pressure transmitter above the tapping point, using a connection tube…

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Advantages of Intelligent Control Valves over Conventional.

The conventional valve has the following problems: The pneumatic positioner does not provide a very exact regulation. The pneumatic positioner is difficult to adjust. Basically the name of intelligent valve is due to the presence of a digital positioner that replaces the traditional positioner. In the block diagram shown in the above figure, the digital valve controller (DVC) is located inside the digital positioner whose main advantages are: Provides better regulation than the traditional…

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Types of thermocouples and their uses in various environments.

Thermocouples are available in various types of calibrations ranges, it is important to carefully select the right thermocouple for our application such as oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres taken into consideration. In the table below are listed the main types of thermocouples: Thermocouple type Positive Element, Negative Element Typical Temperature Range Standard Error Line   Type T Copper Constantan  -200°C~370°C  +/-1°C Type J Iron Constantan 0°C~760°C +/-2.2°C Type E Chromel Constantan 0°C~870°C +/-1.7°C Type K…

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Control Valves and its categories.

Whichever type of control valve is selected, they all have common features such as: Surfaces that form a seal to seal the passage. In control valves usually, there is a fixed seal and a movable seal. Control valves usually consist of a stem that allows a movable seat to move. A hand-wheel or similar devices to assist in the movement of the stem. The packing or seal that prevents fluid loss when the stem…

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What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Every measuring instrument or device requires calibration at periodic intervals, which is part of preventive maintenance (PM). It is because, every instrument or device undergoes drift in calibration with time. Let us discuss As-found data and As-left data in this article. In calibration sheet with “As-found” data is most important because it will determine the validity of any tests run with the instrument in the past. As-found data furnish a history of the drift…

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Signal Generator and Types

The signal generator is an electronic device that induces repetition and non-repetition of analog or digital signals. The signal generator is widely used in troubleshooting, signal tracing, testing, amplifier response tuning, and radio and TV circuit alignment. The signal generator has a built-in modulation property. Amplitude and modulation properties are very common in signal generators. The signal generator’s block diagram is represented in the graphic below. A VCO is the major component of the…

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Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is an equipment that displays, measures, and analyzes different waveforms of electrical circuits. A cathode ray oscilloscope is a high-speed X-Y plotter (a plotter that operates on two axes of motion) that may display an input signal vs time or another signal. Working Cathode ray oscilloscopes work with light points that are produced by striking the electron beam. This light point moves in response to the…

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