What is a Submersible Pump? Working Principles, Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Submersible pumps, as the name indicates, are pumps that work completely submerged in a liquid. The motor, which is coupled inside the pump body, is hermetically sealed, so that water enters it.

A submersible pump is a device that works under the liquid to be pumped since it allows the creation of a significant force. The pump is very easy to use since it only has to be placed under the liquid as deep as possible, leaving the cable and the evacuation pipe outside.

The submersible water pump is introduced into the liquid, usually water, pushing it toward the surface.

Because these types of pumps can be submerged deep and are very easy to install, they can be used to drain ponds or pump water from deep wells.

Working Principle of Submersible pump

The submersible pump inside is composed of a set of impellers, which are activated when the engine is turned on and begins to push the water toward the surface. In this process, the kinetic energy is converted to centrifugal energy, which in turn is ultimately transformed into pressure energy, which lifts the water out of the well.

A submersible pump works by pushing, rather than pulling, liquid during the pumping process. This is extremely efficient because the pump uses the liquid head it is submerged into operating and no energy is expended drawing the liquid into the pump.

Different types of Submersible Pumps

There is a wide variety of submersible pumps, which can be perfectly adapted to pumping different types of liquids with or without solid bodies at different depths. Therefore, the most important this when choosing a submersible pump is knowing what type of installation we going to use it for.

Single-stage submersible pumps are commonly used in domestic installations such as aquarium filters, sewage pumps, and drainage pumps.

Multi-stage pumps, on the other hand, are ideal for pumping underground liquids such as wells or oil fields. These types of pumps can work with both drinking water and heavier liquids such as wastewater or corrosive liquids.

Deep well with centrifugal operating principle for clean water applications. They are lowered into the bottom of the wells that are 10 meters to 50 meters deep or even more. Deep well pumps are composed of a set of impellers, and as water enters the chamber is pushed toward the surface. These pumps are coupled to the hydraulic body and are usually the same diameter as the pump body.

An anti-corrosion coating is applied to its cylindrical stainless steel body. They have high performance, operating time depends on the operating conditions and manufacturer.

Vibrant types are installed in shallow wells and wells up to 10 meters, unlike centrifugal, they can pump water with light suspension formed during operation. Their minute vibrations contribute to the collapse of the soil around the casing. Periodic cleaning of the lower funnel is required to prevent equipment damage.

Parts of a Submersible Pump

A submersible pump is composed of three main parts:  a motor, a coupling adaptor, and a power cable. Other parts are

Safety rope

Pump cable

Cable guards

Cable ties

Well caps

Pressure switch

Relief valve

Drain valves

Ball valves

Filter for sediment

Torque arrester

Advantages of submersible pumps

The main advantage of a submersible pump is that it never needs to be primed since it is already submerged in the liquid to be primed.

Submersible pumps are efficient because they don’t expend too much energy moving when they are in the water.

A positive impact of the submerged pump is that the motor is cooled by the surrounding liquid, preventing overheating.

Submersible motors and pumps can be submerged in water since the motor is hermetically sealed and fits perfectly with the pump body.

They are silent when they are in the water and cavitation is not a problem.

Another great advantage of submersible pumps is that the pressure of the liquid itself pushed it directly toward the pump, so a large amount of energy can be saved.

The main characteristic of submersible pumps is that all their components are submerged in some liquid. They are covered by a sealed body that prevents corrosion and oxidation of internal components.

Disadvantages of Submersible pumps

Gradually, the seals can become corroded. When this happens water seeps into the engine making it useless until it can be fixed.

If the pump is very submerged, at levels that are not suitable for its operation, it begins to wear out more quickly and can even burn out.

Its maintenance is complex, as submerged.

It is necessary to locate it so that it does not touch the floor of the well. At least one and a half or two meters from the ground so that there is a considerable distance and thus avoid absorbing grit or sediment that could damage it.

Another disadvantage is that these pumps are not one-size-fits-all. Pumps with only a single stage are most commonly used in home and light industries.

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