What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Every measuring instrument or device requires calibration at periodic intervals, which is part of preventive maintenance (PM). It is because, every instrument or device undergoes drift in calibration with time. Let us discuss As-found data and As-left data in this article. In calibration sheet with “As-found” data is most important because it will determine the […]

Signal Generator and Types

The signal generator is an electronic device that induces repetition and non-repetition of analog or digital signals. The signal generator is widely used in troubleshooting, signal tracing, testing, amplifier response tuning, and radio and TV circuit alignment. The signal generator has a built-in modulation property. Amplitude and modulation properties are very common in signal generators. […]

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is an equipment that displays, measures, and analyzes different waveforms of electrical circuits. A cathode ray oscilloscope is a high-speed X-Y plotter (a plotter that operates on two axes of motion) that may display an input signal vs time or another signal. Working Cathode ray oscilloscopes work […]

Types of Batteries and their important Characteristics.

Batteries are accumulators that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy and are an essential device in isolated, self-consumption installations. Principle of Battery The basic principle of a battery comprises the oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions of particular chemical substances. One chemical substance of which loses electrons (is oxidized) while the other gains electrons (is reduced), being […]

What are the basic concepts of industrial instrumentation?

Industrial instrumentation is a fundamental discipline in the process industry and production plants. It is possibly less well known than industrial automation, but there are technicians and engineers specialized only in this field. In short, industrial instrumentation refers to a multi-disciplinary area that requires knowledge of electrical electronics, chemistry, mechanics microcontrollers and microprocessors, software language, […]

Types of Pneumatic Directional Valves

The main function of pneumatic valves is to direct and distribute compressed air within a pneumatic circuit. They regulate the pace or slow it down. Pneumatic directional valves build the path that the fluid must travel. But, at the moment of commanding them, the variables are many and it is necessary to know them in […]

Control valve performance and types of associated problems.

A new control valve will execute control operations at peak performance. But to keep the same performance year after year, and decade after decade, a regular and necessary maintenance plan is needed. For control valves, the best plan is based on diagnostics during valve operation and predictive maintenance. Control valve Diagnostics New microprocessor-based diagnostic tools […]

Why 4-20mA signal is more usable? What is the origin of this popular range?

When pneumatics predominated in the industry and its control was referenced with ranges from 3 to 15 PSI, any value outside of that range was considered an alarm signal. Most important events happened in relation to the industrial revolution 2.0, the integration of electronic control to pneumatics. In this context, the easy installation and maintenance […]

Types of Maintenance, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Objectives of Maintenance: Increase the availability of equipment to the level of accuracy. Reduce costs to the minimum compatible with the level of required availability. Improve the reliability of machinery and installations. Assistance to the engineering department in new projects to facilitate the maintainability of the new facilities.                       Maintenance objectives Types of maintenance: Any productive […]


Diaphragm Actuator: The actuator whose element for transforming pressure into force is a diaphragm which is a flexible pressure-sensitive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and is at its once to the actuator stem. The plate is a metallic assembly concentric with the diaphragm in which the stem is held. This type of […]

What are the factors to be considered while choosing an Electric Actuator for an application?

An electric linear actuator is a piece of equipment that transforms the rotary motion of a motor into linear motion. It can be integrated into any equipment to push, pull, lift, lower, position, or rotate a load. Choosing the right electric actuator is the key to any successful automation project. There are many models of […]

Level measurement with capacitance probe, advantages, and limitations.

The capacitance instrument measures the capacitance between the two pieces of a capacitor. The capacitance of the capacitor increases when a dielectric is placed between the plates. The circuit supplies a high-frequency signal to the probe. C = K E0 A D Where: C = capacitance K = dielectric constant of the material E0 = […]

Hazardous area classification, Signal isolation, methods of protection in the dangerous atmosphere.

Classification of hazardous areas The codes used by the different manufacturers subdivide hazardous areas into zones. Zone 0: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is present continuously or for long periods of time. Zone 1: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to be in normal operation. Zone 2: In this zone, […]

Basics of Electrical ground system.

Earth ground installation. A good GROUND system is very important in any electrical installation to protect any of our electrical equipment, electronics, machinery, etc. against downloads electrical. If an office or company already has a physical ground, then one knows the benefits that this has provided you as savings on repairs in our equipment and […]

Actuator types, Hydraulic and Pneumatic.

Actuators are devices capable of generating a force from liquids, gases, and electrical energy. The actuator receives a command signal from the controller and gives an output necessary to activate a final control element such as valves. They can be Hydraulic Pneumatic Hydraulic actuators  They are used when high power is needed, hydraulics require too […]

What is SIS, SIF, and SIL ?

Importance of Safety Safety is increasingly important for the high-risk industry like oil, gas, chemicals and petrochemicals to adequately implement and follow safety programs. This can be achieved by adhering to regulations, which ensure safe processes and higher productivity. Risk Involvement The high-risk industry is one, where processes handle unstable reactions that can get out […]

Types of Valves

Valve categories Due to different variables, there cannot be a universal valve. Therefore, to meet the changing requirements of the industrial process applications, countless designs and variants have been created over the years as new materials have been developed. All valve types fall into nine categories: Plug Valves, Gate Valves, Globe Valves, Ball Valves. Ball […]

What is Network Cable? Functions and types.

When it comes to networking, one needs to know the different types of network cables according to the network topology being built. They are Twisted Pair cable, Fiber Optic, and Coaxial cable Definition and Function Network cable is a tool used to transmit signals from one place to another. Network cable is made of copper […]

Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) procedure of Control Valve

The main purpose of performing the factory acceptance test (FAT) is to check the functionality of each control valve as per agreed and approved documents. It is performed at vendor’s location and on their shop floor. For example, let us take a pressure control valve (PCV) to carry out the FAT. Basic FAT is examination […]

Closed-loop control – Feedback, Feedforward, Cascade, Split Range, and Ratio control

Feedback control: Feedback control is a control system in which the control action depending on process output. This type of control system measures process variables on the process output. Every time there is a measurable change in the process outlet, due to the effects of disturbances (load) the feedback control system reacts to provide corrective […]

What is RTD? It’s Types.

RTD is the acronym for resistance temperature detectors. RTDs are sometimes referred generally as resistance thermometers.    A resistance Temperature detector (RTD) is a popular choice of temperature sensors which measures temperature using the principle that the resistance of a metal changes with temperature. Principle: RTDs work on the basis of relationship between metal and […]

Gateway, Bridge and Router

GATEWAY: Gateway is a network device used to connect two networks. Usually, the gateway is used as a liaison between the local network (LAN) and the public network (internet). In addition, the gateway also acts as a regulator of which packets are allowed to pass which are not. This gateway can be a special device, […]

Miniature Circuit Breaker(MCB) and its types

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch. It is designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or a short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by breaking continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.  Definition As the name implies it is a miniature form of the […]

Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), and it’s strategies

Reliability Centered Maintenance is identified as one of the most powerful tools a company can use to get more value from its physical assets. It is the foundation of highly successful maintenance programs to ensure that machines help operations to deliver the results as required, yielding or exceeding the anticipated financial outcome required by the […]

Cushioning in pneumatic cylinder

Pneumatic cylinder end caps have to withstand shock loads at the extremes of piston travel. These loads arise from the kinetic energy of the moving parts such as piston cup rings of the cylinder and load. When the piston of a normal cylinder is about to complete its stroke, the piston runs into a cylinder’s […]

Thermocouple: Principle, Construction, Characteristics, Advantages, and Limitations.

A thermocouple is a device that converts thermal energy into electric energy. The amount of electric energy generated can be used to measure temperature. A thermocouple is a thermoelectric transducer, used as a primary transducer. Changes in temperature are directly converted to electrical signals. Seebeck Effect: If two wires of different materials are joined together […]

Types of errors in measuring instruments

The performance characteristics of a measuring instrument are categorized as Static and dynamic characteristics. A static error is one of the static characteristics. We know that the static error is the difference between the true value of the measured variable to the value indicated by the instrument not changing with time. The static error may […]

Transducer and its classification

A transducer is a device that can convert a physical quantity into another. Most transducers convert nonelectric quantities into electrical quantities. So transducers act as energy converters. A transducer can be divided into a primary sensing element and a converter element. A primary sensing element detects a quantity to be measured and a converter element […]

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