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Directional Control Valves, Difference between Monostable and Bistable Valves

Directional control valves are those which change the flow of compressed air that goes to the cylinders, pneumatic valve actuators, etc., By switching, opening, or closing their internal connections, they control compressed air passage. It allows control of the inlet and outlet of a cylinder, the opening or closing of a pneumatic clamp, or the… Read More Directional Control Valves, Difference between Monostable and Bistable Valves

Roles and Responsibilities of an Instrumentation and Control Engineer

It is the responsibility of the Instrumentation and Control Engineer for defining and applying the field instrumentation and the control system, level of automation of the process plants, and industrial facilities, for the proper functioning of the process. Greater attention required to be paid on the safety for the equipment and people, and with the… Read More Roles and Responsibilities of an Instrumentation and Control Engineer

What is 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, and 2oo3 voting?

It is a typical Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) Solution. What is the best method to determine the safety architecture?It is the fault tolerance of various components that determines the architecture of an safety instrumented function (SIF). It is possible to achieve a higher level of safety by utilizing the system redundancy. The number of devices… Read More What is 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, and 2oo3 voting?

Difference between the Pressure Gauge with glycerin and without glycerin?

Why the Pressure Gauge that has liquid inside is oil or what exactly? That liquid is glycerin, and the Pressure Gauge must have a type with glycerin and a type without glycerin. Everything has its cause and effect. A pressure gauge with glycerin is good or bad. What kind of work is it suitable for?… Read More Difference between the Pressure Gauge with glycerin and without glycerin?

What is SCADA system (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition)

Definition It is a software application specially designed to work on computers in production control, providing communication with field devices (autonomous controllers) and controlling the process automatically from the computer screen. It also provides all the information generated in the production process to various users, both at the same level and from other supervisory users… Read More What is SCADA system (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition)

Difference between Analog and Digital Transmitter

Digital type of transmitters digitize the measured analog signal, and use a microprocessor. The analog signal entering the transmitter is digitized with an analog to digital converter (ADC). Due to the time required to quantify a signal, digital instruments do not perform a continuous measurement, only sample of the signal are taken. Below we will… Read More Difference between Analog and Digital Transmitter

Mounting Considerations of a Pressure transmitter.

The following observations must be taken into account for the different types of process pressures to be measured. Measurement in liquids With the installation used in horizontal line, the transmitter impulse line must be mounted below the measurement point, so that the discharge pipe is always full of liquid and gas bubbles can pass into… Read More Mounting Considerations of a Pressure transmitter.

Advantages of Intelligent Control Valves over Conventional.

The conventional valve has the following problems: The pneumatic positioner does not provide a very exact regulation. The pneumatic positioner is difficult to adjust. Basically the name of intelligent valve is due to the presence of a digital positioner that replaces the traditional positioner. In the block diagram shown in the above figure, the digital… Read More Advantages of Intelligent Control Valves over Conventional.

Types of thermocouples and their uses in various environments.

Thermocouples are available in various types of calibrations ranges, it is important to carefully select the right thermocouple for our application such as oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres taken into consideration. In the table below are listed the main types of thermocouples: Thermocouple type Positive Element, Negative Element Typical Temperature Range Standard Error Line   Type… Read More Types of thermocouples and their uses in various environments.

Control Valves and its categories.

Whichever type of control valve is selected, they all have common features such as: Surfaces that form a seal to seal the passage. In control valves usually, there is a fixed seal and a movable seal. Control valves usually consist of a stem that allows a movable seat to move. A hand-wheel or similar devices… Read More Control Valves and its categories.

What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Every measuring instrument or device requires calibration at periodic intervals, which is part of preventive maintenance (PM). It is because, every instrument or device undergoes drift in calibration with time. Let us discuss As-found data and As-left data in this article. In calibration sheet with “As-found” data is most important because it will determine the… Read More What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Signal Generator and Types

The signal generator is an electronic device that induces repetition and non-repetition of analog or digital signals. The signal generator is widely used in troubleshooting, signal tracing, testing, amplifier response tuning, and radio and TV circuit alignment. The signal generator has a built-in modulation property. Amplitude and modulation properties are very common in signal generators.… Read More Signal Generator and Types

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is an equipment that displays, measures, and analyzes different waveforms of electrical circuits. A cathode ray oscilloscope is a high-speed X-Y plotter (a plotter that operates on two axes of motion) that may display an input signal vs time or another signal. Working Cathode ray oscilloscopes work… Read More Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Types of Batteries and their important Characteristics.

Batteries are accumulators that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy and are an essential device in isolated, self-consumption installations. Principle of Battery The basic principle of a battery comprises the oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions of particular chemical substances. One chemical substance of which loses electrons (is oxidized) while the other gains electrons (is reduced), being… Read More Types of Batteries and their important Characteristics.

What are the basic concepts of industrial instrumentation?

Industrial instrumentation is a fundamental discipline in the process industry and production plants. It is possibly less well known than industrial automation, but there are technicians and engineers specialized only in this field. In short, industrial instrumentation refers to a multi-disciplinary area that requires knowledge of electrical electronics, chemistry, mechanics microcontrollers and microprocessors, software language,… Read More What are the basic concepts of industrial instrumentation?

Types of Pneumatic Directional Valves

The main function of pneumatic valves is to direct and distribute compressed air within a pneumatic circuit. They regulate the pace or slow it down. Pneumatic directional valves build the path that the fluid must travel. But, at the moment of commanding them, the variables are many and it is necessary to know them in… Read More Types of Pneumatic Directional Valves

Control valve performance and types of associated problems.

A new control valve will execute control operations at peak performance. But to keep the same performance year after year, and decade after decade, a regular and necessary maintenance plan is needed. For control valves, the best plan is based on diagnostics during valve operation and predictive maintenance. Control valve Diagnostics New microprocessor-based diagnostic tools… Read More Control valve performance and types of associated problems.

Why 4-20mA signal is more usable? What is the origin of this popular range?

When pneumatics predominated in the industry and its control was referenced with ranges from 3 to 15 PSI, any value outside of that range was considered an alarm signal. Most important events happened in relation to the industrial revolution 2.0, the integration of electronic control to pneumatics. In this context, the easy installation and maintenance… Read More Why 4-20mA signal is more usable? What is the origin of this popular range?

Types of Maintenance, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Objectives of Maintenance: Increase the availability of equipment to the level of accuracy. Reduce costs to the minimum compatible with the level of required availability. Improve the reliability of machinery and installations. Assistance to the engineering department in new projects to facilitate the maintainability of the new facilities.                       Maintenance objectives Types of maintenance: Any productive… Read More Types of Maintenance, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

CONTROL VALVE GLOSSARY

Diaphragm Actuator: The actuator whose element for transforming pressure into force is a diaphragm which is a flexible pressure-sensitive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and is at its once to the actuator stem. The plate is a metallic assembly concentric with the diaphragm in which the stem is held. This type of… Read More CONTROL VALVE GLOSSARY

What are the factors to be considered while choosing an Electric Actuator for an application?

An electric linear actuator is a piece of equipment that transforms the rotary motion of a motor into linear motion. It can be integrated into any equipment to push, pull, lift, lower, position, or rotate a load. Choosing the right electric actuator is the key to any successful automation project. There are many models of… Read More What are the factors to be considered while choosing an Electric Actuator for an application?

Level measurement with capacitance probe, advantages, and limitations.

The capacitance instrument measures the capacitance between the two pieces of a capacitor. The capacitance of the capacitor increases when a dielectric is placed between the plates. The circuit supplies a high-frequency signal to the probe. C = K E0 A D Where: C = capacitance K = dielectric constant of the material E0 =… Read More Level measurement with capacitance probe, advantages, and limitations.

Hazardous area classification, Signal isolation, methods of protection in the dangerous atmosphere.

Classification of hazardous areas The codes used by the different manufacturers subdivide hazardous areas into zones. Zone 0: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is present continuously or for long periods of time. Zone 1: In this zone, an explosive gas-air mixture is likely to be in normal operation. Zone 2: In this zone,… Read More Hazardous area classification, Signal isolation, methods of protection in the dangerous atmosphere.

Basics of Electrical ground system.

Earth ground installation. A good GROUND system is very important in any electrical installation to protect any of our electrical equipment, electronics, machinery, etc. against downloads electrical. If an office or company already has a physical ground, then one knows the benefits that this has provided you as savings on repairs in our equipment and… Read More Basics of Electrical ground system.

Actuator types, Hydraulic and Pneumatic.

Actuators are devices capable of generating a force from liquids, gases, and electrical energy. The actuator receives a command signal from the controller and gives an output necessary to activate a final control element such as valves. They can be Hydraulic Pneumatic Hydraulic actuators  They are used when high power is needed, hydraulics require too… Read More Actuator types, Hydraulic and Pneumatic.

What is SIS, SIF, and SIL ?

Importance of Safety Safety is increasingly important for the high-risk industry like oil, gas, chemicals and petrochemicals to adequately implement and follow safety programs. This can be achieved by adhering to regulations, which ensure safe processes and higher productivity. Risk Involvement The high-risk industry is one, where processes handle unstable reactions that can get out… Read More What is SIS, SIF, and SIL ?

Types of Valves

Valve categories Due to different variables, there cannot be a universal valve. Therefore, to meet the changing requirements of the industrial process applications, countless designs and variants have been created over the years as new materials have been developed. All valve types fall into nine categories: Plug Valves, Gate Valves, Globe Valves, Ball Valves. Ball… Read More Types of Valves

What is Network Cable? Functions and types.

When it comes to networking, one needs to know the different types of network cables according to the network topology being built. They are Twisted Pair cable, Fiber Optic, and Coaxial cable Definition and Function Network cable is a tool used to transmit signals from one place to another. Network cable is made of copper… Read More What is Network Cable? Functions and types.

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