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Common Errors in Measuring Instrument Calibration: Zero, Span, Linearity, and Hysteresis.

Instrument calibration is a procedure that certifies the measurement obtained by an instrument is compatible with what is expected and is suitable for use, to avoid deviations in the analysis of processes and reduce costs. In general, it comprises comparing the results obtained by the instruments with those obtained by standards, under pre-established and controlled…

What is a Submersible Pump? Working Principles, Types, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Submersible pumps, as the name indicates, are pumps that work completely submerged in a liquid. The motor, which is coupled inside the pump body, is hermetically sealed, so that water enters it. A submersible pump is a device that works under the liquid to be pumped since it allows the creation of a significant force.…

What are the Types of Test signals?

For many practical control processes, the input drives are unknown in advance, unlike electrical circuits and communication systems. In many cases, the actual inputs to a control system generally can vary randomly with respect to time. A designer faces a challenge since it is difficult to design a control process that works satisfactorily with any…

Types of wear to which a Control Valve is exposed

In the study of control valve failure analysis, it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of the wear mechanisms since the detachment of material from a mechanical component can vary remarkably, from very intense to insignificant. It means a total loss of efficiency or complete utility of the item. The wear mechanisms that affect…

What is Rotameter? Principle, Classification, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Description of Rotameter Rotameter is also called a variable area flowmeter. It is a type of flowmeter that measures flow rate or volumetric flow rate. It is defined as the amount of flow per unit of time that circulates through a section of a tube. The rotameter is a conical tube, usually made of glass,…

How does a Solenoid Valve work? Operating Principle, Types

We can define a solenoid valve as a device that has the purpose of controlling the flow of liquids or gases that is electrically actuated and can also be installed in remote or difficult-to-access places. The solenoid valves can be subjected to hostile working conditions. It can be controlled by simple electrical switches. It can…

Directional Control Valves, Difference between Monostable and Bistable Valves

Directional control valves are those which change the flow of compressed air that goes to the cylinders, pneumatic valve actuators, etc., By switching, opening, or closing their internal connections, they control compressed air passage. It allows control of the inlet and outlet of a cylinder, the opening or closing of a pneumatic clamp, or the…

Roles and Responsibilities of an Instrumentation and Control Engineer

It is the responsibility of the Instrumentation and Control Engineer for defining and applying the field instrumentation and the control system, level of automation of the process plants, and industrial facilities, for the proper functioning of the process. Greater attention required to be paid on the safety for the equipment and people, and with the…

What is 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, and 2oo3 voting?

It is a typical Safety Instrumented Function (SIF) Solution. What is the best method to determine the safety architecture?It is the fault tolerance of various components that determines the architecture of an safety instrumented function (SIF). It is possible to achieve a higher level of safety by utilizing the system redundancy. The number of devices…

Difference between the Pressure Gauge with glycerin and without glycerin?

Why the Pressure Gauge that has liquid inside is oil or what exactly? That liquid is glycerin, and the Pressure Gauge must have a type with glycerin and a type without glycerin. Everything has its cause and effect. A pressure gauge with glycerin is good or bad. What kind of work is it suitable for?…

What is SCADA system (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition)

Definition It is a software application specially designed to work on computers in production control, providing communication with field devices (autonomous controllers) and controlling the process automatically from the computer screen. It also provides all the information generated in the production process to various users, both at the same level and from other supervisory users…

Difference between Analog and Digital Transmitter

Digital type of transmitters digitize the measured analog signal, and use a microprocessor. The analog signal entering the transmitter is digitized with an analog to digital converter (ADC). Due to the time required to quantify a signal, digital instruments do not perform a continuous measurement, only sample of the signal are taken. Below we will…

Mounting Considerations of a Pressure transmitter.

The following observations must be taken into account for the different types of process pressures to be measured. Measurement in liquids With the installation used in horizontal line, the transmitter impulse line must be mounted below the measurement point, so that the discharge pipe is always full of liquid and gas bubbles can pass into…

Advantages of Intelligent Control Valves over Conventional.

The conventional valve has the following problems: The pneumatic positioner does not provide a very exact regulation.The pneumatic positioner is difficult to adjust. Basically the name of intelligent valve is due to the presence of a digital positioner that replaces the traditional positioner. In the block diagram shown in the above figure, the digital valve…

Types of thermocouples and their uses in various environments.

Thermocouples are available in various types of calibrations ranges, it is important to carefully select the right thermocouple for our application such as oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres taken into consideration. In the table below are listed the main types of thermocouples: Thermocouple typePositive Element, Negative ElementTypical Temperature RangeStandard Error Line  Type TCopper Constantan -200°C~370°C +/-1°C Type JIron…

Control Valves and its categories.

Whichever type of control valve is selected, they all have common features such as: Surfaces that form a seal to seal the passage. In control valves usually, there is a fixed seal and a movable seal. Control valves usually consist of a stem that allows a movable seat to move. A hand-wheel or similar devices…

What is “As-Found” and “As-Left” calibration data?

Every measuring instrument or device requires calibration at periodic intervals, which is part of preventive maintenance (PM). It is because, every instrument or device undergoes drift in calibration with time. Let us discuss As-found data and As-left data in this article. In calibration sheet with “As-found” data is most important because it will determine the…

Signal Generator and Types

The signal generator is an electronic device that induces repetition and non-repetition of analog or digital signals. The signal generator is widely used in troubleshooting, signal tracing, testing, amplifier response tuning, and radio and TV circuit alignment. The signal generator has a built-in modulation property. Amplitude and modulation properties are very common in signal generators.…

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO): Working and Applications

Cathode Ray Oscilloscope: The Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) is an equipment that displays, measures, and analyzes different waveforms of electrical circuits. A cathode ray oscilloscope is a high-speed X-Y plotter (a plotter that operates on two axes of motion) that may display an input signal vs time or another signal. Working Cathode ray oscilloscopes work…

Types of Batteries and their important Characteristics.

Batteries are accumulators that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy and are an essential device in isolated, self-consumption installations. Principle of Battery The basic principle of a battery comprises the oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions of particular chemical substances. One chemical substance of which loses electrons (is oxidized) while the other gains electrons (is reduced), being…

What are the basic concepts of industrial instrumentation?

Industrial instrumentation is a fundamental discipline in the process industry and production plants. It is possibly less well known than industrial automation, but there are technicians and engineers specialized only in this field. In short, industrial instrumentation refers to a multi-disciplinary area that requires knowledge of electrical electronics, chemistry, mechanics microcontrollers and microprocessors, software language,…

Types of Pneumatic Directional Valves

The main function of pneumatic valves is to direct and distribute compressed air within a pneumatic circuit. They regulate the pace or slow it down. Pneumatic directional valves build the path that the fluid must travel. But, at the moment of commanding them, the variables are many and it is necessary to know them in…

Control valve performance and types of associated problems.

A new control valve will execute control operations at peak performance. But to keep the same performance year after year, and decade after decade, a regular and necessary maintenance plan is needed. For control valves, the best plan is based on diagnostics during valve operation and predictive maintenance. Control valve Diagnostics New microprocessor-based diagnostic tools…

Why 4-20mA signal is more usable? What is the origin of this popular range?

When pneumatics predominated in the industry and its control was referenced with ranges from 3 to 15 PSI, any value outside of that range was considered an alarm signal. Most important events happened in relation to the industrial revolution 2.0, the integration of electronic control to pneumatics.In this context, the easy installation and maintenance of…

Types of Maintenance, Advantages, and Disadvantages.

Objectives of Maintenance: Increase the availability of equipment to the level of accuracy.Reduce costs to the minimum compatible with the level of required availability.Improve the reliability of machinery and installations.Assistance to the engineering department in new projects to facilitate the maintainability of the new facilities.                       Maintenance objectives Types of maintenance: Any productive company that handles…

CONTROL VALVE GLOSSARY

Diaphragm Actuator: The actuator whose element for transforming pressure into force is a diaphragm which is a flexible pressure-sensitive element that transmits force to the diaphragm plate and is at its once to the actuator stem. The plate is a metallic assembly concentric with the diaphragm in which the stem is held. This type of…

What are the factors to be considered while choosing an Electric Actuator for an application?

An electric linear actuator is a piece of equipment that transforms the rotary motion of a motor into linear motion. It can be integrated into any equipment to push, pull, lift, lower, position, or rotate a load. Choosing the right electric actuator is the key to any successful automation project. There are many models of…

Level measurement with capacitance probe, advantages, and limitations.

The capacitance instrument measures the capacitance between the two pieces of a capacitor. The capacitance of the capacitor increases when a dielectric is placed between the plates. The circuit supplies a high-frequency signal to the probe. C = K E0 A D Where: C = capacitance K = dielectric constant of the material E0 =…

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